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Adewale Johnson Folayan, Paul Apeye Lucky Anawe, Augustine Omoniyi Ayeni, Synthesis and characterization of Salicornia bigelovii and Salicornia brachiata halophytic plants oil extracted by supercritical CO2 modified with ethanol for biodiesel production via enzymatic transesterification reaction using immobilized Candida antarctica lipase catalyst in tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) …
Table 6 summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of different types of catalyst based on the above discussion. Enzymatic biodiesel: challenges and opportunities. The major limitation is the reaction rate, which is the slowest among all the catalysts.
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2, 216–225. As discussed previously, oil with high FFA content requires an acid catalyst to esterify the FFA content before transesterification can take place. Articles, Chittagong University of Engineering & Technology, Bangladesh. 250, 793–798. A yield of 86% was observed in the presence of small amount of water with 5 wt.% catalyst loading, 6:1 M methanol/oil ratio, and 65°C reaction temperature for 2 h. The same catalyst was used for four cycles with 20% reduction of FAME yield owing to the formation of Ca-glyceroxide on its surface. A., et al. Manag. J. Chem. Fuel 258:116122. doi: 10.1016/j.fuel.2019.116122, Dubey, P., and Gupta, R. (2017).
Effect of antioxidant on the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with palm biodiesel blends. (2017) studied tungstated zirconia (WO3/ZrO2) as a heterogeneous acid catalyst for the synthesis of biodiesel for S. obliquus lipids. However, in many cases, both types of sites could be present; as such, some of the catalysts can be used as a catalyst to both kind of reactions. Eng. (2015). Magnetic and reusable MgO/MgFe2O4 nanocatalyst for biodiesel production from sunflower oil: Influence of fuel ratio in combustion synthesis on catalytic properties and performance. Base catalysts have high activity in transesterification (Endalew et al., 2011).
J. Taiwan Inst. Several challenges have been reported in the literature for these catalysts: 1.
In addition, high catalyst loading, high temperature, and long reaction time are required to employ this type of catalysts (Mansir et al., 2017).
151, 50–59. (2011) studied continuous esterification of waste fried oil with an acid value of 36.0 mg KOH/g in a fixed bed reactor using commercial cation-exchange resin (NKC-9). IR formulated the article, written heterogeneous base, and other sections, compiled the whole article. 224, 194–203.
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Energ. Manag. Commun. The chemical composition, pore size structure, and ion exchange properties of zeolites are responsible for their versatile catalytic behavior (De Lima et al., 2016). Synthesis of zinc aluminate with high surface area by microwave hydrothermal method applied in the transesterification of soybean oil (biodiesel). Manage. (2019). doi: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2011.12.040, Aransiola, E. F., Ojumu, T. V., Oyekola, O. O., Madzimbamuto, T. F., and Ikhu-Omoregbe, D. I. O. Comparison of standards for diesel and biodiesel ASTM and EN standards (Fattah et al., 2013; Knothe and Razon, 2017).
101, 8686–8689. (2017) studied the biodiesel production from Terminalia belerica and Garcinia gummi-gutta using calcinated CaO as a heterogeneous catalyst. Li et al. Patent landscape review on biodiesel production: technology updates.